ΠΆΘΟΣ AS THE STRUCTURAL ELEMENT OF THE TRAGEDY “THE BACCHAE” BY EURIPIDES

Popovych Yaroslava I.
master student
Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv

Mikhailova Olena G.
PhD (Philology), Associate Professor
Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv


DOI: https://doi.org/10.17721/StudLing2021.19.116-126


FULL TEXT PDF (UKRAINIAN)


ABSTRACT

Ancient Greek tragedies remain not only a source of aesthetic pleasure for modern readers, but also the subject of multi-vector research, and represent an interesting linguistic material at the same time. In particular, on the history of the formation of modern scientific terminology, the definition of sources and methods of terminological nomination. We have chosen the term πάθος (pathos) as the object of our diachronic research, which has a complex semantic structure and an expressive emotional connotation. The origins of the connotation point to the existing connection between pathos and Greek tragedy, which was first noticed by the philosopher Aristotle in his treatise Poetics. He also used this term in his other work “Rhetoric”, no longer in the negative meaning of “suffering”, as in the first case, but in the positive meaning of “emotionality”, appealing to emotions as an obligatory component of any orator’s speech. In our study, we tried to determine the motivation and reasons for the transition of the term “pathos” from the sphere of literature and philosophy (a structural component of Greek tragedy, a rhetorical means) into the language of modern medicine (the word-forming elements patho, -pathicity, -pathic) and the ways of its semantic transformation. Based on the material of ancient Greek tragedy of Euripides “Bacchae”, we analyzed the concept of “pathos” at the level of actions that cause a camp of emotional stress, as well as at the verbal level, examining the lexemes that convey this state. We have determined that the culturological component of these mantic transformations of the term πάθος is closely related to the cult of the god Dionysus, who, having endured severe suffering, became for the ancient Greeks a symbol of renewal and rebirth. The unique feature of the resurrection of Dionysus evoked in the audience a feeling of catharsis – one of the most important emotional components of Greek tragedy. As a result of our research, we have identified the key moments of the tragedy “Bacchae”, where Euripides described strong physical and mental suffering of the heroes, which were supposed to evoke empathy in viewers or readers and bring them closer to a state of catharsis. Linguistic analysis of these fragments helped us to conclude that the source of metaphorization of medical terminology (patho-, -pathic) is associated with Greek tragedy and indicates the existence of a linguocultural parallel with the mythological complex describing life and suffering, death and rebirth of the Greek god Dionysus.

Kee words: pathos, tragedy, suffering, Dionysus, Euripides.


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