←2020. – Vol. 17

Alla D. Belova
Doctor of Philology, Professor
Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv




The article highlights paradigm shift in the Category of Gender triggered by expansion of gender roles spectrum in western world. This category is not reduced to the binary opposition of masculine and feminine any more and does not balance binary oppositions of grammatical gender and biological sex. To categorize new gender identities English naming and word-formation patterns and basic gender terms (male, female, masculine, feminine) were used. Some initialisms, firstly LGTB, gender derivatives were borrowed by other languages as English neologisms. In the 21st century gender-related coinages in Modern English are mushrooming. Mass Media give wide coverage of LGBT movement, fight for their rights, contribution of celebrities to spread and popularization of LGBT culture. New gender identities triggered extension of the initialism LGTB to LGTBQIA+ where the mathematical symbol stands for other diversities unindentified by letters and words yet. Gender diversity will pose the question about appropriate pronouns, so changes within grammatical gender. Mass media texts give numerous examples of increasing gender terms combinability in English, new contexts and make it possible to conclude that LGBT lexico-semantc group in present-day English is developing rapidly. Social trends, naming patterns in English, cognitive mechanisms behind them pose multiple questions about categorization, correlation of biological sex, gender diversities and grammatical gender in English and other languages.

Key words: biological sex, binary opposition, gender, grammatical gender, gender linguistics, paradigm, paradigm shift, person name, pronoun, LGTBQIA+.


  1. Vinogradov, V. A. «Rod.» Lingvisticheskij jenciklopedicheskij slovar’ (Moskva: Sovetskaja jenciklopedija, 1991): 17-418.
  2. Zaliznjak, A. A. «Mestoimenie.» Lingvisticheskij jenciklopedicheskij slovar’ (Moskva: Sovetskaja jenciklopedija, 1991): 294-295.
  3. Grishin, M. Doch’ Mihaila Efremova izmenila imja v socsetjah na muzhskoe (2020),
  4. Emirsuinova, G. I. «Leksykon suchasnogo feminizmu (na materiali anglijs’koi’ movy).» (Dys. kand. filol.nauk, Kyi’v, 2003).
  5. Ksenija Borodina raskritikovala blogera Danju Milohina za snimki v plat’e (2021), IwAR0QzKFc2cDkRqNfxMAZgHMxHoIEuPYL_80kVHcaqdN7lcDzaUng7k5Kvbo
  6. Martynjuk, A. P. Konstrujuvannja genderu v anglomovnomu dyskursi (Harkiv, Konstanta, 2004).
  7. Zimmer, Karl She has her mother’s laugh /Ona smeyotsya kak mat. Moguchshestvo i prichudy nasledstvennosti (Kyiv: Alpina, 2020).
  8. Shymanovych, G. M. Kognityvni chynnyky evoljucii’ nazv osib v anglijs’kij movi ХХ stolittja (Dys. kand. filol. nauk, Kyi’v, 2005).
  9. Alpel, Alexanrda & Shalal, Andrea. Biden calls for expanded efforts to protect LGBTQ rights globally (2021),
  10. Ainsworth, Claire. Sex Redefined: The Idea of 2 Sexes Is Overly Simplistic (2018),
  11. Dicke, Anna-Lena, Safavian Nayssan, Eccles Jacquelynne S. Traditional Gender Role Beliefs and Career Attainment in STEM: A Gendered Story? (2019),
  12. Gold, Michael. The ABCs of L.G.B.T.Q.I.A.+ (2018), 06/21/style/lgbtq-gender-language.html
  13. LGBTQ+ Glossary,
  14. Marr, Ruaridh. Oscars will require more LGTBQ actors for Best Picture nominees (2020),
  15. Merriam-Webster Dictionary (MWD), family#note-1
  16. Nash, Joy. Gender Roles in Modern Society (2016),
  17. Pete Buttigieg Is Confirmed as Biden’s Transportation Secretary (2021),
  18. Tannen, Deborah. Gender and Discourse (Oxford University Press, 1996).
  19. The 50 Most Powerful LGTBQ Players in Hollywood (2020),
  20. 64 Terms That Describe Gender Identity and Expression.

Language data

  1. Chen, Angela (2020). The Rise of the 3-Parent Family, family/archive/2020/09/how-build-three-parent-family-david-jay/616421/
  2. Did culture really embrace queer people this decade? (2019),
  3. Future Is The Future Is A New Gender-Neutral Clothing Store Based In Toronto (2015),
  4. Gender-Neutral Clothing Stores (2015), genderneutral-kids-clothing
  5. Schools to replace ‘mum’ and ‘dad’ with ‘Parent 1’ and ‘Parent 2’ (2019),
  6. The French government has started proceedings to change the law to get ‘mother’ and ‘father’ removed from all school paperwork (2019), world-news/schools-replace-mum-dad-parent-14014535
  7. This Tropical Fragrance From Tom Ford is Designed for Men and Women (2015),
  8. What Does “Two-Spirit” Mean? | InQueery | them, watch?v=A4lBibGzUnE
  9. Why One Married Couple And Their Friend Formed A 3-Parent Family (2017),